Oferta de doctorado en biología celular en Francia ~ Bioblogia.net

27 de julio de 2019

Oferta de doctorado en biología celular en Francia

*PhD project: Analysis of atypical meiosis and mitosis in non-model nematode species*

*Start date*: October 2019, PhD fellowship funded by CNRS

*Keywords*: evolution, comparative cell biology, nematodes, asexuality,
meiosis, mitosis, spindle mechanics, biophysics


Basic cell functions show remarkable conservation across phyla. All
eukaryotic cells must divide, replicate their DNA, assemble chromosomes,
etc. Because of this overt conservation, very little is known about the
evolution of the mechanisms that sustain these basic functions. How
variable are these mechanismsin closely related species, and what
changes are possible.

*Our lab has established the nematode early embryo as a study system to
address these questions. *We have developed two main axes: i) exploring
which modification to female meiosis allows asexual reproduction (ex.
[1]), ii) which molecular and physical changes are responsible for the
different mechanics of the mitotic spindle between species (ex. [2]).

Nematode early embryos are ideal because they are large cells, their
first cell division is very fast (15 minutes in /C. elegans/) and many
subcellular events can be analyzed by simple DIC microscopy. Moreover,
the one-cell embryo of the reference species /C. elegans/has been
extensively studied both at the biophysical and molecular level,
offering a framework to start comparative analysis. Last, functional
approaches using RNAi or CRISPR/Cas9 are now feasible in non-model
nematode species ([3] and our unpublished results).

For this PhD project, we will i) compare cellular properties such as
dynamics of the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton, the kinetochores,
the repartition of molecular motors, etc. between /C. elegans/ and a
couple of non-model nematode species displaying interesting phenotypes.
This will be achieved by live-cell imaging of fluorescently tagged
proteinsgenerated by CRISPR/Cas9. ii) investigate the evolution of key
molecular components of spindle mechanics (molecular motors,
microtubule-associated proteins, regulator of the acto-myosin network,
regulation of cohesins, …) across species using RNAi and mutants
generated by CRISPR/Cas9.

*References :*

[1]. Grosmaire M, & al. *Delattre, M*. Males as somatic
investment in a parthenogenetic nematode*. **Science.
*2019 Mar 15;363(6432):1210-1213. doi: 10.1126/science.aau0099.

[2]. Valfort AC, & al, *Delattre, M*. Evolution of mitotic spindle
behavior during the first asymmetric embryonic division of nematodes.
<https://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.insb.bib.cnrs.fr/pubmed/29357348> *PLoS
Biol*. 2018 Jan 22;16(1):e2005099. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2005099.
eCollection 2018 Jan.

[3]. Adams S, & al. Liposome-based transfection enhances RNAi
and CRISPR-mediated mutagenesis in non-model nematodesystems.
<https://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.insb.bib.cnrs.fr/pubmed/30679624> Sci Rep.
2019 Jan 24;9(1):483. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-37036-1.

*Environment*: Our institute (LBMC) is situated on the campus of the
Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon (ENS-site Monod) in the south of the
Lyon city center (France). ENS offers an interdisciplinary environment
(30 research structures, from archaeology to quantum physics). The
project is part of an interdisciplinary and international research program.

*Student requirements*: Applicants must have a master or engineer degree
in biology or biophysics. Background in either cell biophysics, cell
biology, molecular genetics is required. Previous experience with the
CRISPR/Cas9 system and/or nematodes will be appreciated. We are looking
for highly motivated candidates with a special interest for evolutionary
questions and/or cellular biophysics. Good relational skills are
important for the project, as it will be carried out in an
interdisciplinary and international environment. Please include a CV, a
cover letter with the name of at least two references and a 1-page
summary of your master thesis.

*Contact*: Marie Delattre, marie.delattre@ens-lyon.fr

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